Below is Mark Brader's transcription of the earliest known document describing a form of bridge, the booklet "Biritch, or Russian Whist". This is the game that the plain word "bridge" originally referred to, before the development of auction bridge and then today's contract bridge. Modern writers usually call it "straight bridge" or "bridge-whist".
The catalogue of the Bodleian Library at Oxford University, which holds what is probably the only existing copy, attributes the booklet to writer J. Collinson, although the booklet itself shows no author. The library's date stamp on their copy reads 23 OCT 86 (meaning 1886).
The document does not have any of the physical forms that we would expect today. It is actually a miniature bound book, containing 56 pages (28 sheets) of paper about 3 by 5 inches between (fairly) hard covers. The covers are plain brown with no writing visible, though the spine is covered with the library's tape (on which they have written the title, a catalog number, and the date 1886). Of the 56 pages, only 4 have anything printed on them: the first 2 and the last 50 are blank.
Spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and italics are intended to be exactly as in the original. Boldface in the transcription, except in headings, represents (capitals and) small capitals in the original. Ditto marks in the original take a form resembling a double comma, like a closing double quote moved down to the baseline, so ,, is used to represent them. The + signs in the decorative line below the title are Maltese crosses in the original.
The value of the cards is the same as at short whist.
Tricks are taken in the same manner, and the odd tricks, over and above six, are counted as at short whist.
There are four players as at short whist, the cutting for partners, shuffling and dealing is the same, except that no card is turned up for trumps.
The dealer, after the cards have been looked at, has the option of declaring the suit he elects for trumps, or of saying "pass," in which latter case his partner must declare a suit for trumps.
In either case of the dealer or his partner declaring, the one declaring may, instead of declaring trumps, say "biritch," which means that the hands shall be played without trumps.
After the declaration of trumps, or "biritch," either of the adversaries may say "contre," in which case the value of all tricks taken is doubled, the dealer or his partner may however thereupon say "sur contre," in which latter case the value of all the tricks taken is quadrupled, and so on ad infinitum the doubling of the last established value may go on until one side ceases to call a "sur" to the previous "sur contreing."
When the declaration has been made, and the "contreing" and "sur contreing" (if any) have ceased, the person to the left of the dealer leads a card.
Then the partner of the dealer exposes all his cards, on the table, which are played by the dealer as at Dummy Whist.
No suggestions as to play may be made by the one standing out (Dummy) to the dealer.
A revoke counts the same as at Short Whist, but the exposed hand cannot revoke.
A misdeal does not change the deal, but in such cases the cards must be re-shuffled, re-cut, and re-dealt.
After each rubber there is a fresh cut for partners.
A game is won by the first side which scores in play 30 points. The honours do not score towards the game.
The Rubber consists, as at Short Whist, of two games out of three.
The odd tricks count as follows:--
|If||"Biritch"||is declared||. . . .||each||10||points.|
|,,||"Hearts"||are||made||trumps . .||,,||8||,,|
If all the tricks are taken by one side they add 40 extra points. This is called "Grand Slamm."
If all the tricks but one are taken by one side they add 20 extra points. This is called "Petit Slamm."
The winners of each rubber add 40 points to their score. This is called "Consolation."
There are four honours if "Biritch" is declared, which are the four aces.
Equality in aces counts nothing.
|3||aces||. . . . . . . = 3||tricks.|
|4||,,||. . . . . . = 4||,,|
|4||,,||in one hand . . . = 8||,,|
There are five honours, viz:--Ace, King, Queen, Knave and Ten, if trumps are declared.
|Simple||honours (3)||. . = 2||tricks.|
|4||,,||. . . = 4||,,|
|4||,,||(in one hand) = 8||,,|
|5||,,||. . . . = 1||trick|
|additional to the score for four honours.|
The honour points are of equal value to the other points, except that they do not affect the games or rubbers, and are not doubled by a "contre."
If one hand has no trumps (trumps having been declared) his side, in the case of it scoring honours, adds the value of simple honours to its honour score, or, in the case of the other side scoring honours, the value of simple honours is deducted from the latter's score. This is called "Chicane."
The original document and this transcription are in the public domain. The HTML markup may be freely reproduced provided that references to Clive Feather's site are either removed or edited appropriately.
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